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水泥自动搅拌车液压转向系统计算与选型

来源:http://www.sdzkjf.cn/ 日期:2021-08-11 发布人:admin
2.1  转向阻力矩计算
2.1 calculation of steering resistance torque
液压转向系统匹配设计,先应计算转向阻力矩。一般地,转向阻力矩分为原地转向阻力矩和行驶转向阻力矩,考虑到原地转向阻力矩是行驶转向阻力矩的2~3倍,自上料搅拌车转向系统应按满足实现原地转向力矩要求进行设计。影响汽车转向阻力矩的因素有汽车前轴负荷、轮胎与地面之间的摩擦系数、轮胎气压等。目前常用的经验计算公式:
In the matching design of hydraulic steering system, the steering resistance moment should be calculated first. Generally, the steering resistance moment is divided into in-situ steering resistance moment and driving steering resistance moment. Considering that the in-situ steering resistance moment is 2 ~ 3 times of the driving steering resistance moment, the steering system of the self loading mixer shall be designed to meet the requirements of in-situ steering torque. The factors that affect the steering resistance moment of automobile include the load of automobile front axle, the friction coefficient between tire and ground, tire pressure and so on. Currently commonly used empirical calculation formula:
式中:Mr1——转向阻力矩,N·m;
Where: MR1 - steering resistance moment, n · m;
f ——轮胎与地面摩擦系数,取 0.7;
F - friction coefficient between tire and ground, taken as 0.7;
G1——车辆转向轴轴荷,N;
G1 -- axle load of vehicle steering axle, N;
P——车辆轮胎胎压,kPa。
P -- tire pressure of vehicle tire, kPa.
自上料搅拌车单轴轴荷 75000N,正常工作胎压550kPa,代入数值可得 Mr1= 6462N·m。
Since the maximum single axle load of the charging mixer is 75000n and the normal working tire pressure is 550kpa, the value can be substituted to get MR1 = 6462n · M.
2.2  转向油缸选型及校核
2.2 steering cylinder selection and verification
转向系统设计需要考虑两种情况,种情况,转向油缸随车桥确定,且受结构限制不能随意改变,此刻应计算转向桥载荷,通过调整整机质心,使转向桥载荷在合适的范围内,同时对转向油缸进行校核计算。第二种情况,转向桥所受载荷已确定,需要对转向油缸进行选型设计,使之符合转向要求。目前自上料搅拌车选用林德10t 车桥,油缸性能参数已经确定,先需要对油缸进行校核,参数见表 1。
Two situations need to be considered in the design of the steering system. In the first case, the steering cylinder is determined with the axle and cannot be changed arbitrarily due to structural constraints. At this time, the steering axle load should be calculated, the steering axle load should be within the appropriate range by adjusting the mass center of the whole machine, and the steering cylinder should be checked and calculated at the same time. In the second case, the load on the steering axle has been determined, and the steering cylinder needs to be selected and designed to meet the Steering requirements. At present, Linde 10t axle is selected for the self loading mixer, and the performance parameters of the oil cylinder have been determined. First, the oil cylinder needs to be checked, and the parameters are shown in Table 1.
转向油缸推力为
The maximum thrust of steering cylinder is
代入数值,可得 Fmax=76302N
By substituting the value, Fmax = 76302n can be obtained
自上料搅拌车车桥转向油缸的转向作用力臂随转向角的关系曲线如图3 所示。车桥转向角为 32°,由图可知更小力臂 Rmin=125mm。
The relationship curve between the steering action arm of the axle steering cylinder of the self loading mixer and the steering angle is shown in Fig. 3. The maximum steering angle of the axle is 32 °. It can be seen from the figure that the minimum force arm Rmin = 125mm.
根据转矩公式:Fmax =Mr2 / (Rmin η)
According to the torque formula: Fmax = MR2 / (Rmin) η)
式中:Rmin——更小力臂,mm;
Where: Rmin - minimum force arm, mm;
η——转向机械效率,取 0.8;
η—— Steering mechanical efficiency, taken as 0.8;
Mr2 ——转向力矩,N·m。
MR2 -- steering torque, n · M.
代入数值,可得 Mr2=7630.2N·m
By substituting the value, we can get MR2 = 7630.2n · M
根据计算结果 Mr2>Mr1,满足使用要求。
According to the calculation results, MR2 > MR1, it meets the use requirements.
2.3  转向器排量的确定
2.3 determination of displacement of steering gear
当转向轮从一个极限位置到另一个极限位置,方向盘转过的圈数n,既要满足行驶工况,防止车轮转向过大导致车身稳定性差,又要满足有较少的作业循环,提高操作便利性。一般设计中,n=3~5 圈。
When the steering wheel moves from one limit position to another, the number of turns n of the steering wheel should not only meet the driving conditions and prevent the poor stability of the vehicle body caused by excessive steering of the wheel, but also meet the requirements of less work cycles and improve the convenience of operation. In general design, n = 3 ~ 5 cycles.
转向油缸全行程油液体积:V=SA
Full stroke oil volume of steering cylinder: v = SA
式中:S——活塞行程,mm;
Where: s -- piston stroke, mm;
A——油压作用面积,mm2。
A - oil pressure action area, mm2.
代入数值,得出 V=858mL
Substitute the value to obtain v = 858ml
先选取 n=4,则转向器排量为V/n=858/4=214,对照转向器厂家样本,选用排量为 200mL/r 型号的转向器。
水泥自动搅拌车
If n = 4 is selected first, the displacement of the steering gear is v / N = 858 / 4 = 214. Compared with the sample of the steering gear manufacturer, the steering gear with a displacement of 200ml / R is selected.
2.4  齿轮泵排量的确定
2.4 determination of gear pump displacement
转向系统流量:Q=qn
Steering system flow: q = QN
式中:q——转向器排量,mL/r;
Where: Q -- displacement of steering gear, ml / R;
n——方向盘转速,取 0.8r/s。
N -- steering wheel speed, taken as 0.8r/s.
代入数值,得出 Q=160mL/s
Substitute the value to get q = 160ml / s
按照发动机怠速状态下分析,齿轮泵排量
The displacement of the gear pump is analyzed according to the idle state of the engine
qc=60Q/(ndη)
qc=60Q/(nd η)
式中:nd——发动机怠速转速,取750r/min;
Where: Nd -- engine idle speed, taken as 750r / min;
η——转向泵效率,取 0.95。
η—— Steering pump efficiency, taken as 0.95.
代入数值,得出 qc=13.5mL/r
Substitute the value to get QC = 13.5ml/r
现选用齿轮泵排量为 16mL/r,满足使用要求。
The displacement of gear pump is 16ml / R, which meets the use requirements.
3 结束语
3 conclusion
全液压四轮转向系统具有布置方便、转向灵活的特点,目前在轮式挖掘机上有普遍应用。本文从液压转向原理着手,对四轮液压转向在自上料搅拌车上的应用做了详细介绍,并通过计算分析,对转向油缸的强度、排量进行校核,确定转向器及齿轮泵的排量,为液压转向系统设计提供一种参考。
Full hydraulic four-wheel steering system has the characteristics of convenient layout and flexible steering. At present, it is widely used in wheel excavator. Starting from the principle of hydraulic steering, this paper introduces in detail the application of four-wheel hydraulic steering in self loading mixer truck, checks the strength and displacement of steering cylinder through calculation and analysis, and determines the displacement of steering gear and gear pump, so as to provide a reference for the design of hydraulic steering system.
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Good products make good services, and good manufacturers make good works. Automatic cement mixers insist on providing customers with high-quality services. Please continue to pay attention to our website for details: http://www.sdzkjf.cn

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